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What are the raw materials of lithium-ion batteries? Introduction to the raw materials of the lithium-ion battery

June 11, 2021

The most important parts of the lithium-ion battery are the four major materials: cathode material, negative electrode material, diaphragm, and electrolyte.

In recent years, lithium-ion batteries have promoted the establishment of upstream and downstream companies in the industry. The cathode materials account for more than 40% of the total cost of the lithium ion batteries, and the performance of the cathode materials directly affects the performance indicators of the lithium ion batteries, so from the four main materials, the lithium electric cathode materials occupy the core position in the lithium ion batteries.

Among the cathode materials, the most commonly used materials are lithium-cobaltate, lithium manganate, lithium-iron phosphate, and ternary materials (the polymer of nickel, cobalt and manganese). The cathode materials occupy a large proportion, because the performance of the cathode materials directly affects the performance of the lithium-ion batteries, and its cost also directly determines the cost of the battery.

Among the negative materials, the current negative materials are mainly natural graphite and artificial graphite. The negative materials being explored are nitrides, PAS, tin-based oxides, tin alloys, nanonegative materials, and some other intermetallic compounds, etc. As one of the four components of the lithium ion battery, the anode material plays an important use in improving the capacity and recycling performance of the battery, and is in the core link of the middle reaches of the lithium ion battery industry.

In the diaphragm material, the diaphragm material is a polyolefin diaphragm mainly on polyethylene and polypropylene. In the structure of lithium-ion batteries, the diaphragm is one of the key inner layer components. The performance of the diaphragm determines the interface structure and internal resistance of the battery, which directly affects the capacity, circulation and safety performance of the battery. The diaphragm with excellent performance has an important purpose for improving the comprehensive performance of the battery.

In the electrolyte material, the main components of the electrolyte are vinyl carbonate, propylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, methyl ethyl carbonate, lithium hexafluoroidal phosphate, phosphorus pentafluoride, and hydrofluoric acid, etc. Electrolytes are the medium used by chemical batteries and electrolytic capacitance (with certain corrosion) to provide ions for their normal work and ensure that the chemical reactions occurring during the work are reversible.

In addition, more auxiliary materials, such as copper foil and aluminum foil. Shell (aluminum shell, steel shell, etc.), cover plate, protective plate, adhesive packaging, etc. Some batteries also need to use aluminum and plastic film and so on.

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